Reading: Management_13e, Robbins and Coulter.

  1. Content – Summary
    1. Topic 1 – Ch1 (done)
    2. Topic 2 – Ch1 & Ch15 (done)
    3. Topic 3 – Ch1 & Ch2 (done)
    4. Topic 4 – Ch14 (done)
    5. Topic 5 – Ch16 (done)
    6. Topic 6 – Ch17 (done)
    7. Topic 7 – MID TERM Exam (done)
    8. Topic 8 – Ch10 & Ch11 (done)
    9. Topic 9 – Ch3 ()
    10. Topic 10 – Ch3
    11. Topic 11 – Ch6
  2. Content – Details
    1. Chapter 1 – Managers in the Workplace (p.35-71)
      1. Objectives
        1. Explain why managers are important to organizations
        2. Tell who managers are and where they work
          1. Know how to manage you time
        3. Describe the functions, roles and skills of managers
          1. Develop you skill at being politically aware
        4. Describe the factors that are reshaping and redefining the manager’s job
        5. Explain the value of studying management
      2. Contents of Ch1
        1. Why managers are  important to organizations?
          1. organizations need their managerial skills and abilities in uncertain, complex, and chaotic times;
          2. Managers are critical to getting things done in organizations;
          3. Managers contribute to employee productivity and loyalty;
        2. Who managers are and where they work:
          1. managers coordinate and oversee the work of others -> organizational goals;
          2. managers work in organization;
        3. The functions, roles, and skills of managers
          1. overseeing the efficient and effective completion of others’s work activities;
          2. 4 functions: planning, organizing, leading, controlling
          3. Mintzberg’s managerial roles: interpersonal, informational, decisional
          4. Katz’s managerial skills: technical, interpersonal, conceptual
        4. Factors that are reshaping and redefining the manager’s job
          1. PEST, changing workplaces, ethical issues, security threats;
        5. The value of studying management
          1. 3 reasons: the universality of management, the reality of work, awareness of the significant rewards and challenges;Managerial roles and skills
    2. Chapter 15 – Understanding and Managing Individual Behavior (p.460 – 491)
      1. Objectives
        1. Identify the focus and goals of individual behavior within organizations
        2. Explain the role that attitudes play in job performance
        3. Describe different personality theories
          1. Know how to be more self-aware
        4. Describe perception and factors that influence it
        5. Discuss learning theories and their relevance in shaping behavior
          1. Develop you skill at shaping behavior
        6. Discuss contemporary issues in organizational behavior
      2. Keywords:
        1.  organized vs disorganized
        2. open to change VS comfortable with the familiar
      3. Contents of Ch15
        1. Challenges in understanding OB – address issues that aren’t obvious (like iceberg);iceberg
        2. to understand elements that also influence how employees behave to work;
        3. Areas
          1. Individual behavior (contributed by psychologists)
            1. Attitudes, personality, perception, learning, and motivation
          2. Group behavior (contributed by sociologists and social psychologists)
            1. Norms, roles, team building, leadership, and conflict
          3. Organizational behavior
            1. Structure, culture, and human resource policies and practices
        4. Goals of OB: explain (why), predict (how) and influence behavior;
        5. Six employee behaviors
          1. Employee productivity, absenteeism, turnover, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), job satisfaction, and workplace misbehavior;
          2. Employee productivity: measurement of both efficiency and effectiveness;
          3. Absenteeism
          4. Turnover
          5. Organizational citizenship behavior
          6. Job satisfaction
          7. Workplace misbehavior
        6. Attitudes and Job performance
          1. Attitude: cognition, affect, and behavior
            1. Cognition: beliefs, opinions, knowledge or information held by a person
            2. Affect: usually referred from attitude; emotional or feeling part of an attitude, and could lead to behavioral outcomes;
            3. Behavior: intention to behave in a certain way
        7. Job-related attitudes: Job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment
          1. Job satisfaction: general attitude toward his or her job
            1. job satisfaction tends to increase as income increases, more challenges and allows workers more control;
            2. Strong correlation between satisfaction and productivity;
            3. Job satisfaction VS 6 employees behaviors
          2. Job involvement: degree of active participation
          3. Organizational commitment: degree to wish to maintain membership
            1. identifying your employing organization
            2. perceived organizational support – lead to increased job satisfaction and lower turnover;
          4. Employee engagement: when employees are connected to, satisfied with, and enthusiastic about their jobs;
            1. 2.5x to be top performers than less-engaged coworkers;
          5. Attitudes and consistency
            1. people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behavior;
          6. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
            1. Cognitive dissonance: inconsistency between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes;
            2. The inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals try to reduce;
              1. Factors affecting us to reduce
                1. importance
                2. degree of influence
                3. rewards
          7. Regularly surveying employee attitudes: averaged for work groups, departments, divisions, or the organization; (wearable technology for continuous assessment)
        8. Personality
          1. unique combination of emotional, thought, and behavior patterns; affects how a person reacts and interacts;
          2. Two most well-known personality classification approaches: Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Big Five Model:
            1. MBTI: 100-question assessment, 16 personality types;
              1. Social interaction: extraversion or introversion (E or I)
              2. Preference for gathering data: sensing or intuition (S or N)
              3. Preference for decision making: thinking or feeling (T or F)
              4. Style of making decisions: judging or perceiving (J or P)
            2. Big Five Model
              1. Extraversion
              2. Agreeablesness
              3. Conscientiousness
              4. Emotional stability
              5. Openness to experience
          3. Other personality traits
            1. Locus of Control: internal (controlled by own) or external (controlled by outside forces);
            2. Machiavellianism: ends / results can justify means; eg. salesperson
            3. Self-Esteem (SE)
              1. directly related to expectations for success;
              2. High SE
                1. possess the ability they need to succeed at work
                2. take more risks in job selection, and choose unconventional jobs
                3. less susceptible to external influence
                4. more satisfied with their jobs than low SEs
            4. Self-Monitoring: ability to adjust behavior to external, situational factors;
              1. Ability to present contradictions between the public persona and the private selves;
              2. Low self-monitors cannot adjust their behavior
            5. Risk Taking
            6. Proactive personality
            7. Resilience: ability to overcome challenges and turn them into opportunities;
        9. Emotions and Emotional Intelligence (EI)
          1. 5 dimensions of EI (ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information)
            1. Self-awareness
            2. Self-management
            3. Self-motivation
            4. Empathy
            5. Social skills
          2. EI relevant to success in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction;
        10. Perception
          1. Attribution Theory: explain how we judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior;
            1. when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused;
            2. Distinctiveness: different behaviors in different situations, eg. unusual behavior caused by external forces while usual behavior as internal caused;
            3. Consensus: does other behave the same way in similar situations?
            4. Consistency: does person behave this way consistently?
            5. fundamental attribution error:
              1. tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and to overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors;
              2. attribute our own successes to internal factors while putting blame for personal failure on external factors;
            6. Shortcuts used in judging others
              1. Assumed similarity: others are like onself
              2. Stereotyping: grouping a person based on perception
              3. Halo effect: general impression of an individual based on a single characteristic
        11. Learning:
          1. to explain, predict and influence behavior, we need to understand how people learn;
          2. Operant Conditioning
            1. behavior is a function of its consequences, eg. known rewards or punishment;
          3. Social learning theory: learn thru observation and direct experience
            1. Four processes
              1. Attentional processes: models which are attractive, repeatedly available, important and sees as similar to us;
              2. Retention processes: how well we remembers the actions
              3. Motor reproduction processes: reproduce the action
              4. Reinforcement processes: motivate the exhibit
          4. Shaping behavior:
            1. positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement: repeat desirable behaviors;
            2. punishment, and extinction: weakening undesirable behaviors;
        12. Contemporary issues
          1. Managing generational differences
            1. Gen Y (1982-1997)
          2. Managing negative behavior in the workplace
        13. Skills exercise – Develop your shaping behavior skill
          1. Must teach your employees the behaviors most critical to their;
            1. Identify the critical behaviors that have a significant impact on an employee’s performance;
            2. Establish a baseline of performance;
            3. Analyze the contributing factors to performance and their consequences;
            4. Develop a shaping strategy
            5. Apply the appropriate strategy
            6. Measure the change that has occurred
            7. Reinforce desired behavior
    3. Chapter 2 – Making Decisions (p.74-)
      1. Objectives
        1. Describe the eight steps in the decision-making process
          1. Develop you skills
        2. Explain the four ways managers make decisions
        3. Classify decisions and decision-making conditions
        4. Describe different decision-making styles and discuss how biases affect decision making
          1. Know how to recognize when you’ve using decision-making error and biases and what to do about it
        5. Identify effective decision-making techniques
      2. Contents of Ch2
        1. Eight steps in decision making process
          1. Identify a problem
          2. Identify decision criteria (or constraints)
          3. Allocating weights to the criteria
          4. Developing alternatives
          5. Analyzing Alternatives
          6. Selecting an Alternative
          7. Implementing the Alternative
          8. Evaluating decision effectiveness
        2. Making decisions (approaches)
          1. objective and logical
          2. bounded rationality: rational decision making, but limited by an individual’s ability to process information, thus, managers satisfice rather than maximize. eg. not searching all possible alternatives;
          3. escalation of commitment:
            1. increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that it may have been wrong;
            2. do not want to admit that the initial decision may have been flawed, eg. Challenger space shuttle disaster;
          4. Intuitive decision making
            1. on basis of experience, feelings and accumulated judgement;
            2. Subconscious mental processing (use data from subconscious mind)
            3. Value or ethics-based decisions
            4. Experience-based decisions
            5. Affect-initiated decisions (on feelings / emotions)
            6. Cognitive-based decisions (on skills / knowledge / training)
          5. Evidence-based management (EBMgt)
            1. systematic use of the best available evidence to improve management practice
            2. four essential elements
              1. decision maker’s expertise and judgement
              2. external evidence that’s been evaluated by the decision maker
              3. opinions, preferences and values of those who have a stake in the decision
              4. relevant organizational factors such as context, circumstances and members;
        3. Types of decisions
          1. structured problems and programmed decisions
            1. straightforward, familiar and easily defined;
            2. programmed decision – repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach;
            3. defined “develop-the-alternatives” stage
            4. three types of programmed decisions
              1. procedure: sequential steps
              2. rule: explicit statement about what can or cannot be done;
              3. policy: guideline for making decision with ambiguous terms that requires interpretation
          2. Unstructured problems and non-programmed decisions
            1. new or unusual problems for which info is ambiguous or incomplete
        4. Decision-making conditions: Certainty, risk, and uncertainty;
        5. Decision-making styles
          1. Linear thinking style: decisions on external data and facts and processing this information thru rational and logical thinking;
          2. nonlinear thinking style: preference for internal sources of information (feelings and intuition) with internal insights / feelings;
          3. Decision-making biases and errors
            1. rules of thumb / heuristics
            2. overconfidence bias
            3. immediate gratification bias (want immediate rewards and avoid immediate costs)
            4. anchoring effect: failed to adjust from initial information
            5. Selective perception bias
        6. Effective decision making in Today’s World
          1. Guidelines for effective decision making
            1. Understand cultural differences
            2. Create standards for good decision making:
              1. forward looking
              2. use available information
              3. consider all available and viable options
              4. not create conflicts of interest
              5. develop your ability to think clearly
            3. Know when it’s time to call it quits
            4. Use an effective decision-making process
              1. focuses on what’s important
              2. logical and consistent
              3. acknowledges both subjective and objective thinking
              4. require enough info as is necessary to resolve a problem
              5. encourages and guides gathering relevant info and informed opinions
              6. straigthforward, reliable, easy to use and flexible;
          2. Design thinking and decision making
            1. Design thinking: approaching management problems as designers approach design problems
          3. Big Data and Decision Making
    4. Chapter 14 – Managing Communication
      1. Objectives:
        1. Define the nature and function of communication
        2. Compare and contrast methods of interpersonal communication
        3. Identify barriers to effective interpersonal communication and how to overcome them
          1. Develop your skill at listening actively
          2. Know how to identify the differences in how genders communicate
        4. Explain how communication can flow most effectively in organizations
        5. Describe how technology affects managerial communication and organizations
        6. Discuss contemporary issues in communication
      2. Contents of Ch14:
        1. Keys: understanding the differences in how males and females communicate;
          1. males: speak and hear a language of independence and control; tend to direct;
          2. females: us communication to seek connection, closeness and intimacy; tend to subtle / vague / evasive;
        2. Communication: the transfer and understanding of meaning;
        3. Four functions of communication: control, motivation, emotional expression, and information;
        4. Barriers to effective communication
          1. Filtering, Information overload, Defensiveness, Language (jargon), National culture;
          2. Overcome: Use Feedback, Simplify Language, Active Listening, Control Emotion, Watch non-verbal cue;
        5. Workplace design and communication
          1. enclosures and barriers;
        6. IT and communication
          1. Networked systems and Wireless capabilities
        7. Getting employee input, eg. employee suggestion box
        8. Ethical communication
          1. includes all relevant information, is true in every sense, and is not deceptive in any way;
          2. encourage ethical communication? to establish clear guidelines for ethical behavior, including ethical business communication;
          3. Manager: responsible to think through your communication choices and the consequences of those choices;
        9. Active listening skills
          1. Make eye contact
          2. Exhibit affirmative nods and appropriate facial expressions
          3. Avoid distracting actions or gestures that suggest boredom
          4. Ask questions
          5. Paraphrase what’s been said
          6. Avoid interrupting the speaker
          7. Stay motivated to listen: not overtalk
          8. Make smooth transitions between the roles of speaker and listen
    5. Chapter 16 – Motivating Employees
      1. Objectives
        1. Define motivation
        2. Compare and contrast early theories of motivation
        3. Compare and contrast contemporary theories of motivation
          1. Develop your skill at motivating employees
        4. Discuss current issues in motivation
          1. Know how to identify what motivates you
      2. Contents of Ch16
        1. Keys:
          1. what motivates YOU in your career;
          2. effective managers who get employees to put forth maximum effort know how and why those employees are motivated and tailor motivational practices to satisfy their needs and wants;
          3. Effort direct toward and consistent with organizational goals;
        2. Motivation – the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained toward attaining a goal;
        3. Four early motivation theories
          1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
            1. Physiological <-> Safety <-> Social <-> Esteem <-> Self-Actualization
            2. each level in the needs hierarchy must be substantially satisfied before the next need becomes dominant;
            3. Lower-order needs (physiological / safety) are satisfied externally;
            4. Maslow provided no empirical support for his theory;
          2. McGregor’s theories X and Y
            1. Theory X is negative view of people (dislike, lazy, avoid responsibility)
            2. Theory Y is positive view of people (creative, enjoy work, self-direction); guide management practice;
          3. Herzberg’s two-factor theory (motivation-hygiene theory)
            1. intrinsic factors (recognition / responsibilities) are related to job satisfaction while extrinsic factors (supervision / salary) are associated with job dissatisfaction;
            2. hygiene factors – eliminate job dissatisfaction, but don’t motivate;
            3. opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction” while opposite of “dissatisfaction” is “no dissatisfaction”;
            4. Motivators (intrinsic factors)  – increase job satisfaction and motivation;
          4. McClelland’s three-needs theory
            1. Three acquired needs are major motives in work:
              1. need for achievement (nAch)
                1. achievement motivation based of people with high nAch
              2. need for power (nPow)
                1. impact / impression on others
              3. need for affiliation (nAff) 
                1. relationship with others
            2. measured by projective test TAT
        4. Contemporary Theories of Motivation (supported by research)motivation theories
          1. Goal-setting Theory
            1. The proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals;
              1. working toward a goal (measurable) is a major source of job motivation;
              2. specific and challenging goals, which are once accepted,  produce a higher output than the generalized one;
              3. People will do better if they get feedback on how they’re progressing toward their goals
                1. Higher self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task;
          2. Reinforcement Theory
            1. theory that behavior is a function of its consequences;
            2. focuses solely on what happens to a person when he or she does something;
            3. influence employees’s behavior by using positive reinforcers for actions;
          3. Job design Theory
            1. managers should design jobs deliberately and thoughtfully to reflect the demands of the changing environment
            2. Job enlargement: increasing the number of tasks
              1. knowledge enlargement activities (expanding the scope of knowledge used in a job) lead to more job satisfaction, enhanced customer service, and fewer errors;
            3. Job enrichment: vertical expansion (job depth) of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities;
            4. Job characteristics model (JCM)
              1. Five dimensions and their impacts on employee productivity, motivation, and satisfaction
                1. Skill variety
                2. Task identity
                3. Task significance
                4. Autonomy
                5. Feedback
              2. individual’s motivation will be stimulated by the job itself, satisfy their control over their work;
          4. Equity Theory
            1. employee compares his or her job’s input-outcomes ratio with that of relevant other and then corrects any inequity;
          5. Expectancy Theory
            1. an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual;
          6. High achievers VS general achievers
            1. high achievers are not concerned with the effort-performance, performance-reward, or reward-goals linkages;
            2. high nAch are internally driven as long as the jobs they’re doing provide them with personally responsibility, feedback and moderate risks
        5. Current issues in motivation
          1. motivating in tough economic circumstances
            1. be creative in keeping their employees’ efforts energized, directed and sustained toward achieving goals;
            2. keeps lines of communication open and to get their input on issues;
            3. establishing a common goal
            4. creating a community feel so employees could see that managers cared about them and their work;
            5. giving them opportunities to continue to learn and grow;
          2. cross cultural motivation challenges
            1. hierarchy of needs align with culture;
          3. motivate unique group of users
            1. professionals:
              1. chief reward is the work itself
              2. want others to think that what they are working on is important;
            2. low-skilled, minimum-wage employees
              1. money but also, employee recognition programs;
          4. Designing appropriate rewards programs
            1. Open Book Management: get employees to think like an owner
              1. sharing organization’s financial statements;
              2. require employees’ commitment to help find ways to reduce expenses and cut costs
            2. Employee Recognition Programs
            3. Pay-for-performance
    6. Chapter 17 – Being a Effective Leader
      1. Objectives
        1. Define leader and leadership
        2. Compare and contrast early theories of leadership
        3. Describe the three major contingency theories of leadership
        4. Develop your skill at choosing an effective leadership style
        5. Describe contemporary views of leadership
        6. Discuss contemporary issues affecting leadership
        7. Know how to prepare for an effective transition to a leadership position
      2. Contents of Ch17
        1. key: how to become more charismatic;
          1. Focus on others, not yourself;
          2. Be more extroverted;
          3. work on your communication skills;
          4. control your emotions;
          5. exhibit self-confidence;
        2. Leader: someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority;
          1. ideally, all managers should be leaders;
        3. leadership: a process of influencing a group to achieve goals
        4. Early Leadership theories
          1. Leadership Trait theories
            1. Drive / Desire to lead / Honesty and integrity / Self-confidence / Intelligence / Job-relevant knowledge / Extraversion / Proneness to guilt;
            2. more likely but not guarantee to be an effective leader; Also, ignore the interactions of leaders and their group members as well as situational factors;
          2. Leadership Behavior theories
            1. University of Iowa studies
              1. autocratic style: dictates work methods, makes unilateral decisions, and limits employee participation;
              2. democratic style: involves employees in decision making, delegates authority and uses feedback;
              3. laissez-faire style: let the group make decisions and complete the work;
            2. The Ohio State studies
              1. initiating structure: a leader defined his or her role and the roles of group members in attaining goals;
              2. Consideration: a leader had work relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings;
              3. a high-high leader sometimes achieved high group tasks performance and member satisfaction;
            3. University of Michigan studies
              1. employee oriented: emphasizing interpersonal relationships;
                1. able to get high group productivity and high group member satisfaction;
              2. production oriented: emphasizing the task aspects of the job;
            4. The managerial grid
              1. concern for people
              2. concern for production
              3. managers performed best when using a 9,9 style (team management, high concern for production, high concern for people)
        5. Contingency theories of Leadership
          1. The Fiedler Model (reflect situational factors)
            1. effective group performance depends on the proper match between a leader’s style and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence;
            2. key factor: leadership style – task oriented / relationship oriented;
              1. measured by least-preferred coworker questionnaire (LPC) (shortcomings: not practical)
            3. Improve leader effectiveness
              1. bring in a new leader whose style better fit the situation;
              2. change the situation to fit the leader
          2. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory
            1. contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness
              1. People are unable and unwilling
                1. Telling style: high task-low relationship
              2. People are unable but willing
                1. Selling style: high task-high relationship
              3. People are able but unwilling
                1. Participating style: low task-high relationship
              4. People are able and willing
                1. Delegating style: low task-low relationship
          3. Path-Goal Model
            1. leader’s job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the goals of the group or organization;
            2. directive leader
            3. supportive leader
            4. participative leader
            5. achievement oriented leader
        6. Contemporary views of Leadership
          1. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
            1. leaders create in-groups and out-groups and those in the in-group will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction;
          2. Transformational-Transactional Leadership
            1. transactional leaders: lead by using social exchanges / transactions, i.e. rewards;
            2. transformational leaders:
              1. lead by stimulate and inspire followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes;
              2. developed from transactional one;
          3. Charismatic-Visionary Leadership\
            1. Charismatic leader: an enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways;
              1. personal characteristics:
                1. they have a vision
                2. the ability to articulate that vision
                3. a willingness to take risks to achieve that vision
                4. a sensitivity to both environmental constraints and follower needs
                5. behaviors that are out of the ordinary
            2. Visionary leadership: ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future that improves on the present situation;
          4. Managing Power
            1. Five sources of leader power
              1. Legitimate power: power or authority a leader has as a result of his / her position; broader than the power to coerce and reward;
              2. Coercive power: power to punish or control;
              3. Reward power: power to give positive rewards;
              4. Expert power: power based on expertise / knowledge;
              5. Referent power: power that arises because of a person’s desirable resources;
          5. Developing Trust
            1. Building trusts at work:
              1. being good at what you do;
              2. being passionate about your work and people around you;
              3. ability to listen and follow through;
            2. Honesty
            3. Competent
            4. Inspiring
            5. Five dimensions of trust
              1. Integrity
              2. Competence – tell the truth
              3. Consistency
              4. Loyalty
              5. Openness – show consistency
          6. Empowering Employees
            1. increasing the decision-making discretion of workers;
            2. For an organization to compete in a dynamic global economy, employees have to be able to make decisions and implement changes quickly;
          7. Leading Across Cultures
            1.  adjust style to situation
          8. Become an effective Leader
            1. Leader training
            2. Substitutes for Leadership
              1. explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures or cohesive work groups;
              2. inherently unambiguous and routing
              3. experience, training, professional orientation, or need for independence
      3. Skills
        1. Team stage: forming, storming, norming, or performing;
    7. Chapter 10 – Designing Organizational Structure – Basic Designs
      1. Objectives
        1. Describe six key elements in organizational design
        2. Know how to delegate work to others and develop your skill at delegating
        3. Contrast mechanistic and organic structures
        4. Discuss the contingency factors that favor either the mechanistic model or the organic model of organizational design
        5. Describe traditional organizational designs
      2. Contents of Ch10
        1.  Keys
          1. How to delegate and control work tasks to others;
          2. Successful delegation
            1. Clarify the assignment
            2. Specify the employee’s range of discretion
            3. Allow the employee to participate
            4. Inform others that delegation has occurred
            5. Establish feedback controls to monitor progress
            6. Recognize key performance milestones and accomplishments
        2. organizational structure
          1. formal arrangement of jobs within an organization
        3. Six key elements in organizational design
          1. Work specialization
            1. dividing work activities into separate job tasks
          2. Departmentalization
            1. Functional departmentalization
            2. Geographical departmentalization
            3. Product departmentalization
            4. Process departmentalization
            5. Customer departmentalization
          3. Chain of Command – line of authority extending from upper organizational levels to lower levels, which clarifies who reports to whom;
          4. Span of control
            1. no magic number
            2. skills and abilities of the manager and the employees
            3. Information system / culture / standardized procedures…
          5. Centralization-decentralization
          6. Formalization
        4. Contrast mechanistic and organic structures
          1. mechanistic organization is a rigid and tightly controlled structure while organic is highly adaptive and flexible;
        5. Contingency factors
          1. Organization’s strategy
        6. Traditional organizational designs
    8. Chapter 11 – Designing Organizational Structure – Adaptive Designs
      1. Objectives
        1. Describe contemporary organizational designs
          1. Develop your skill at acquiring and using power
        2. Discuss how organizations organize for collaboration
        3. Explain flexible work arrangements used by organizations
        4. Discuss organizing issues associated with a contingent workforce
        5. Describe today’s organizational design challenges
      2. Contents of Ch11
        1. Keys:
          1. How to stay connected and in the organizational loop when you’re in a nontraditional working arrangement;
          2. Stay focused and productive;
          3. Communicate, communicate and communicate;
          4. Choose appropriate technology
          5. Be aware of the “people” aspects of remote work arrangements;
        2. Contemporary Organizational Designs
          1. Team Structures
          2. Matrix and Project Structures
          3. The boundaryless organization
            1. virtual organization
            2. network organization
          4. Learning Organizations
            1. developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change;
            2. must share information and collaborate on work activities;
    9. Chapter 3 – Managing the External Environment and the Organization’s Culture
      1. Objectives
        1. Contrast the actions of managers according to the omnipotent and symbolic views
        2. Describe the constraints and challenges facing managers in today’s external environment
          1. Develop your skill at scanning the environment so you can anticipate and interpret changes taking place
        3. Discuss the characteristics and importance of organizational culture
          1. Know how to read and assess an organization’s culture
        4. Describe current issues in organizational culture
      2. Contents of Ch3
        1. keys
          1. how to “read” an organization’s culture so you can find one in which you’ll be happy;
          2. To-dos:
            1. Do background work;
            2. Observe the physical surroundings and corporate symbols;
            3. How would you characterize the people you meet?
            4. Look at the organization’s HR manual (if you can);
            5. Ask questions of the people you meet;
        2. Omnipotent or Symbolic
          1. Omnipotent view of management: managers are directly responsible for an organization’s success or failure;
            1. eg. turnover among college and professional sports coaches;
          2. Symbolic view of management: much of an organization’s success or failure is due to external forces which are outside and constraint managers’ control;
        3. The External Environment – Constraints and Challenges
          1. The Economic Environment
            1. commodity / raw materials costs;
            2. income disparity and fiscal imbalance;
          2. The Demographic Environment
            1. certain stages in the life cycle can constraint decisions and actions taken by business;
          3. How external environment affects mangers
            1. Jobs and employment
            2. Environmental uncertainty: degree of change (dynamic / stable) and complexity in an organization’s environment
              1. Dynamic – unpredictable change; Predictable change is not dynamic
            3. Stakeholders relationships that exist
        4. Organizational Culture: Constraints and Challenges
          1. What is Organizational culture?
            1. shared values, principles, traditions and ways of doing things;
            2. Culture:
              1. Perception
              2. Descriptive
              3. Shared aspect of culture
            3. Seven Dimensions (Low-to-High)
              1. Innovation and Risk taking
              2. Attention to Detail
              3. Outcome Orientation
              4. People Orientation
              5. Team Orientation
              6. Aggressiveness
              7. Stability
          2. Strong Cultures
            1. greater influence on employees than weaker cultures; more loyal than the ones in weak cultures
            2. relatively high agreement on what’s important, what defines “good” employee behavior; and more it affects the way managers plan, organize, lead, and control;
            3. Research suggests there are positive correlations between strong cultures and high organizational performance;
            4. Drawback of strong culture: prevent employees from trying new approaches, especially when conditions change rapidly;
          3. Where cultures comes from and how it continues
            1. behaviors of founders and top management
          4. How employees learn culture
            1. Stories
            2. Rituals
            3. Material Symbols
            4. Language
          5. How Culture affects ManagersO cultures
        5. Current issues in organizational culture
          1. Creating an innovative culture
          2. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture
          3. Spirituality and Organizational Cutlure
            1. Strong sense of purpose
            2. Focus on individual development
            3. Trust and openness
            4. Employee empowerment
            5. Tolerance of employee expression
      3. Skills
        1. Decide which type of environmental information is important to your work;
        2. Regularly read and monitor pertinent information;
        3. Incorporate the information you get from your environment scanning into your decisions and actions;
        4. Regularly review your environmental scanning activities;
        5. Encourage your subordinates to be alert to information that is important;
    10. Chapter 6 – Managing Social Responsibility and Ethics
    11. Chapter 7 – Managing Change and Innovation
      1. Compare and contrast views on the change process
      2. Classify types of organizational change
      3. Explain how to manage resistance to change
        1. Know how to be change ready by overcoming your resistance to change
      4. Discuss contemporary issues in managing changes
        1. Develop your skill in change management so you can serve as a catalyst for change
      5. Describe techniques for stimulating innovating
    12. Chapter 8 – Planning Work Activities
      1. Define the nature and purposes of planning
      2. Classify the types of goals organizations might have and the plans they use
      3. Compare and contrast approaches to goal-setting and planning
        1. Know how to set goals personally and create a useful, functional to-do list
        2. Develop your skill at helping your employees set goals
      4. Discuss contemporary issues in planning
    13. Chapter 9 – Managing Strategies
      1. Define strategic management and explain why it’s important
      2. Explain what managers do during the six steps of the strategic management process
        1. know how to identify your own personal strengths and weakness and deal with them
        2. develop your skill at strategic planning
      3. Describe the three types of corporate strategies
      4. Describe competitive advantage and the competitive strategies organizations use to get it
      5. Discuss current strategic management issues
    14. Chapter 12 – Managing HR
      1. Explain the importance of the human resource management process and the external influences that might affect that process
      2. Discuss the tasks associated with identifying and selecting competent employees
      3. Explain the different types of orientation and training
      4. Describe strategies for retaining competent, high-performing employees
      5. Discuss contemporary issues in managing human resources
    15. Chapter 13 – Creating and Managing Teams
      1. Define groups and the stages of group development
      2. Describe the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction
      3. Define teams and best practices influencing team performance
        1. Know how to maximize outcomes through effective negotiating
        2. Develop you skills at coaching team members
      4. Discuss contemporary issues in managing teams
    16. Chapter 18 – Monitoring and Controlling
      1. Explain the nature and importance of control
      2. Describe the three steps in the control process
      3. Explain how organizational and employee performance are measured
        1. Know how to be effective at giving feedback
      4. Describe tools used to measure organizational performance
      5. Discuss contemporary issues in control
        1. Develop you skills at dealing with difficult people
Reading: Management_13e, Robbins and Coulter.

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